Smucker, Mervin (2013). Childhood Depression: Five major depressive factors in pre-adolescent children.

A factor analysis conducted with a large nonclinical sample of pre-adolescent children yielded the following five depressive constructs (factors) related to the syndrome of children depression, as measured by the Children’s Depression Inventory and reported in Psychological Assessment (1998, 10, 156-165):

Externalizing – is characterized by high loadings on items typically associated with externalizing, acting-out behaviors, such as misbehavior, disobedience, and aggression (boys scored significantly higher on this factor than girls).

Dysphoria – items that loaded highly on this factor were associated with sadness, crying spells, irritability, and loneliness (girls scored significantly higher on this factor than boys).

Self-Deprecation – is characterized by high loadings for items relating to self-hate, negative body image, and feeling unloved (girls scored significantly higher on this factor than boys).

School Problems – items that loaded highly on this factor related to difficulties in school work and performance in addition to low self-esteem and sleep disturbance (boys scored significantly higher on this factor than girls).

Social Problems – is characterized by high loadings on items that include social withdrawal, lack of friendships, and aggression as well as school dislike and anhedonia (boys scored significantly higher on this factor than girls).

Mervin Smucker